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Gentamicin

Overview

Gentamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic isolated from Micromonospore purpurea. The aminoglycosides are the compound containing characteristic amino sugars joined to a hexose nucleus in glycoside linkage. Aminoglycosides are polycations and their polarity accounts for their pharmakokinetic properties. Gentamycin is effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Gentamicin (Sulphate) is active alone but also exibit synergism with ß lactam antibiotic. Antibiotics require constant drug level in body for therapeutic effect. This is achieved by taking the medication at regular interval of time throughout the day and night as prescribed. Gentamicin (Sulphate) is important to take the drug for the full time period as prescribed. If you discontinue the therapy, it may result in ineffective treatment.

Category:

Primary Characterstics

Molecular Structure of Gentamicin
Gentamicin (Sulphate), Gentamicin (Sulphate) are the derivatives of Gentamicin. It is of Semi Synthetic origin and belongs to Aminoglycoside. It belongs to Amebicides pharmacological group on the basis of mechanism of action.

Pharmacokinetics

Volume of distribution is found to be 0.2 l/kg and plasma protien binding is < 25%. Renal Excretion accounts for 80% and plasma half life is 1.5-2.5 hr.

Indications

Contraindications

Gentamicin is contraindicated in conditions like Renal diseases,Hypersensitivity.

Interactions

Gentamicin is known to interact with other drugs like Atracurium (Besylate), Capreomycin, Cefaclor (Monohydrate), Cefotaxime, Cisplatin, Clindamycin, Cyclosporin A, Cytarabine (HCl), Ethacrynic Acid, Ethacrynic Acid, Floxacillin (Na), Foscarnet (Na), Frusemide or Furosemide, Hydrocortisone, Indomethacin, Iotroxate (Meglumine), Neomycin, Netilmicin (Sulphate), Oxaliplatin, Pancuronium (Br), Protamine (Sulphate), Pyridostigmine (Br), Salsalate, Streptomycin, Sulphacetamide, Tobramycin, Vancomycin (HCl).

These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

Interference in Pathology

  • Heparinized Blood Samples

Side Effects

The severe or irreversible adverse effects of Gentamicin, which give rise to further complications include Encephalopathy, Convulsions, Hallucinations, Nephrotoxicity, Neuromuscular blockage, Peripheral neuritis, Anaemia.

Gentamicin produces potentially life-threatening effects which include Neuromuscular blockage, Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity. which are responsible for the discontinuation of Gentamicin therapy.

The symptomatic adverse reactions produced by Gentamicin are more or less tolerable and if they become severe, they can be treated symptomatically, these include Dizziness, Vertigo, Fever, Ototoxicity, Skin rashes, Exfoliative dermatitis, Eosinophilia, Purpura, Angioedema, Pyuria, Proteinuria, Azotemia, Cylindruria, Local allergies, Cross sensitivity.

Available Brands

Click on the appropriate strength of the dosage form to view its available brands.

Single Ingredient

Inj: 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, 20 mg/ml, 40 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, 80 mg/ml,
Drops: 300 mg/ml,
Eye Drops: 0.3 %w/v, 3.5 %w/v,
Ear Drops: 0.3 %w/v,
Eye Oint: 0.3 %w/w,
E and E Drops: 0.3 %v/v, 0.3 %w/v,
Oint: 0.1 %,
Cream: 1 %w/w, 0.1 %w/w, 0.3 %w/w,
Eye Gel: 0.3 %w/w,

Multi ingredient

Inj: 80 mg,
Eye Drops: 0.3 %w/v,
Ear Drops: 0.3 %w/v,
Eye Oint: 0.3 %w/w,
E and E Drops: 0.3 %w/v,
Oint: 0.1 %w/w, 0.17 %w/w,
Cream: 1.7 mg, 0.1 %w/w, 0.3 %w/w, 0.12 %w/w, 0.001 %w/w,

Manufacturer(s) of Gentamicin
  • AGP

  • Aims

  • Akson

  • Amros

  • Atco

  • Aventis

  • Biogen

  • Bloom

  • Bosch

  • Caraway

  • Delux

  • Derma tech

  • Dermagen

  • Drugs

  • E Pharm

  • Elko

  • Epoch

  • Festel

  • Friends

  • Geofman

  • Global

  • Harmann

  • Helix

  • Indus

  • Innvotek

  • ISIS

  • KPL

  • Krka-Pak

  • Lawrence

  • LCPW

  • Macter

  • Mass

  • MBL

  • Medera

  • Medipak

  • Mehran

  • Merck

  • Nabiqasim

  • Neo

  • Neutro

  • Novartis

  • Ophth-Pharma

  • Orient

  • Pharma Health

  • Polyfine

  • Prime

  • Ray

  • Reko

  • Reliance

  • Remington

  • Rex

  • Saffron

  • Saydon

  • Schazoo

  • Shrooq

  • Spencer

  • Star

  • Sulk

  • Swiss Pharma

  • Trigon

  • Valor

  • Vega

  • Venus

  • Wellborne

  • Welmark

  • Xenon

  • Zinta

Dosage

Gentamicin's dosage details are as follows:
Dose Single Dose Frequency Route Instructions
Adult Dosage

4.000 to 8.000 mg

6 (6)

As recommended.

Intra Thecal

As Required

3.000 to 5.000 mg/kg

4 (4)

As recommended.

IV,IM

In 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. Doses vary according to indication.

0.300 %

0.3 (0.3)

6 hourly

Otic

1-2 drops

1.500 mg/kg/dose

1.5 (1.5)

As recommended.

PO

For prevention of becterial endocarditis. NOT to exceed 80 mg with ampicillin (1-2g). 30 minutes prior to procedures.

0.300 %

0.3 (0.3)

8 hourly

Topical

Or twice a day if needed.

Paedriatic Dosage ( 20 Kg. )

0.300 %

0.3 (0.3)

6 hourly

Ear

-

2.000 to 1.500 mg/kg

1.8 (1.75)

8 hourly

Intra Muscular

2.500 mg/kg

2.5 (2.5)

8 hourly

Intra Venous

-

0.300 %

0.3 (0.3)

6 hourly

Opthalmic

-

0.300 %

0.3 (0.3)

6 hourly

Topical

-

Neonatal Dosage ( 3 Kg. )

2.500 mg/kg

2.5 (2.5)

8 hourly

Intramuscular

2.500 mg/kg

2.5 (2.5)

8 hourly

Intravenous

0.300 %

0.3 (0.3)

6 hourly

Topical

High Risk Groups

Drug should not be given to Pregnant Mothers, patients suffering from Kidney dysfunction, and Neonates.

If prescribing authority justifies the benefits of the drug against the possible damages he/she should reevaluate them and consult the reference material and previous studies.

Warning / Precautions

Gentamicin should be used with caution in patients with history of kidney diseases, vertigo, hearing loss, myasthenia gravis, parkinsonisms. It should be used with caution in patients who are sensitive to aminoglycosides. Keep patients well hydrated to prevent chemical irritation or nephrotoxic reactions. Take appropriate measures in case of secondary infections.

Storage Conditions

Inj, Eye Drops, Skin Oint or Cream

Store at room temperature, Below 30°C. Do not Freeze.

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